Which elements of Putin’s playbook do we see used time and time again in different countries in Europe and Eurasia?

What signs should we have seen in Ukraine from 2015 to 2022?

And which of these can help inform civil society resilience strategies in the future?

Policymakers have long been concerned about eroding civic space, in light of a wave of rising authoritarianism and democratic backsliding. Yet, advocates for strengthening civic space have rarely had reliable and comparable data to quantify and monitor country vulnerabilities, nor were US policymakers able to quantify the best avenues for US assistance.